His works have enjoyed broad international appeal and are still widely read. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writers of Arabic literature , along with Tawfiq el-Hakim , to explore themes of existentialism. Many of his works have been made into Egyptian and foreign films. His novels, short stories, and essays, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory , deal with political, social, and philosophical issues, including nuclear weapons , nuclear power , social non-conformism , and existentialism.
Guan Moye b. Donald Morrison of the U. In , Mo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his work as a writer "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary". Orhan Pamuk b. One of Turkey's most prominent novelists,  his work has sold over thirteen million books in sixty-three languages,  making him the country's best-selling writer. Born in Istanbul ,  Pamuk is the first Turkish Nobel laureate.
He is also the recipient of numerous other literary awards. Considered one of the most significant authors of the 20th century and one of the best in the Spanish language , he was awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature and the Nobel Prize in Literature.
His works have achieved significant critical acclaim and widespread commercial success, most notably for popularizing a literary style labeled as magic realism , which uses magical elements and events in otherwise ordinary and realistic situations. Some of his works are set in a fictional village called Macondo the town mainly inspired by his birthplace Aracataca , and most of them explore the theme of solitude.
Mario Vargas Llosa , b. Some critics consider him to have had a larger international impact and worldwide audience than any other writer of the Latin American Boom. The discussion of the literary canon above, especially with regard to "Great Book" and the "debate" over the canon, is also relevant. Ancient Greek philosophy has consistently held a prominent place in the canon. Only a relatively small number of works of Greek philosophy have survived, essentially those thought most worth copying in the Middle Ages.
Plato , Aristotle and, indirectly, Socrates are the primary figures. Roman philosophy is included, but regarded as less significant as it tended to be even by the Romans themselves. The ancient philosophy of other cultures now receives more attention than before the 20th century. The vast body of Christian philosophy is typically represented on reading lists mainly by Saints Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas , and the 12th-century Jewish scholar Maimonides is now usually represented, mostly by The Guide for the Perplexed.
The academic canon of early modern philosophy generally includes Descartes , Spinoza , Leibniz , Locke , Berkeley , Hume , and Kant , though influential contributions to philosophy were made by many thinkers in this period. Women have engaged in philosophy throughout the field's history. There were female philosophers since ancient times, notably Hipparchia of Maroneia active c. While other areas of the humanities are at or near gender parity, philosophy is actually more overwhelmingly male than even mathematics. Many philosophers today agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception.
Alfred North Whitehead once noted: "The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens , the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, especially the Western tradition , unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries. Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist.
Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance , and his views were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism profoundly influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophical and theological thought during the Middle Ages and continues to influence Christian theology , especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Roman Catholic Church. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics.
All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Major Western writers and philosophers have been influenced by Eastern philosophy. Through his teacher Ammonius Saccas died c.
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AD , the Greek speaking philosopher Plotinus may have been influenced by Indian thought, because of the similarities between neoplatonism and the Vedanta philosophies of Hinduism. American modernist poet T S Eliot wrote that the great philosophers of India "make most of the great European philosophers look like schoolboys".
Chinese philosophy originates during a period known as the " Hundred Schools of Thought ",  philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to B. A porous distinction between analytic and continental approaches emerged during this period. The term "continental" is misleading, as many prominent British philosophers such as R. Collingwood and Michael Oakeshott were non-analytic, and many non-British European philosophers like Wittgenstein were analytic. Moreover, analytic approaches are dominant in the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Germany, and parts of east-central Europe today.
Some argue in English-speaking countries, it is better to distinguish between the dominant approaches of university departments, where Modern Language departments tend to favor continental methods and philosophy department tends to favor analytic ones. Female philosophers have begun to gain prominence in the last hundred years. Notable female philosophers from the contemporary period include Susanne Langer — , Simone de Beauvoir — , Simone Weil , and Martha Nussbaum —.
The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. In classical music , during the nineteenth century a "canon" developed which focused on what was felt to be the most important works written since , with a great concentration on the later part of this period, termed the Classical period , which is generally taken to begin around In the s, the standard concert repertoire of professional orchestras, chamber music groups, and choirs tends to focus on works by a relatively small number of mainly 18th- and 19th-century male composers.
Many of the works deemed to be part of the musical canon are from genres regarded as the most serious , such as the symphony , concerto , string quartet , and opera. Folk music was already giving art music melodies, and from the late 19th century, in an atmosphere of increasing nationalism , folk music began to influence composers in formal and other ways, before being admitted to some sort of status in the canon itself.
Since the early twentieth century non-Western music has begun to influence Western composers. Specifically, he was drawn to the Javanese Gamelan ,  which he first heard at the Paris Exposition. He was not interested in directly quoting his non-Western influences, but instead allowed this non-Western aesthetic to generally influence his own musical work, for example, by frequently using quiet, unresolved dissonances, coupled with the damper pedal, to emulate the "shimmering" effect created by a gamelan ensemble.
American composer Philip Glass was not only influenced by the eminent French composition teacher Nadia Boulanger ,  but also by the Indian musicians Ravi Shankar and Alla Rakha , His distinctive style arose from his work with Shankar and Rakha and their perception of rhythm in Indian music as being entirely additive. In the latter half of the 20th century the canon expanded to cover the so-called Early music of the pre-classical period, and Baroque music by composers other than Bach and George Frideric Handel.
Earlier composers, such as Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , Orlande de Lassus and William Byrd , have also received more attention in the last hundred years. The absence of female composers from the canon has been debated in the twentieth century, even though there have been female composers throughout the classical music period. Marcia J Citron, for example, has examined "the practices and attitudes that have led to the exclusion of women [sic] composers from the received 'canon' of performed musical works.
Saariaho's opera L'amour de loin has been staged in some of the world's major opera houses, including The English National Opera  and in the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The backbone of traditional Western art history are artworks commissioned by wealthy patrons for private or public enjoyment. Much of this was religious art, mostly Roman Catholic art. The classical art of Greece and Rome has, since the Renaissance, been the fount of the Western tradition.
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Giorgio Vasari — is the originator of the artistic canon and the originator of many of the concepts it embodies. His Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects covers only artists working in Italy,  with a strong pro-Florentine prejudice, and has cast a long shadow over succeeding centuries.
Northern European art has arguably never quite caught up to Italy in terms of prestige, and Vasari's placing of Giotto as the founding father of "modern" painting has largely been retained. In painting, the rather vague term of Old master covers painters up to about the time of Goya. This "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection present in art history textbooks, as well as the prices obtained in the art trade.
But there have been considerable swings in what is valued. In the 19th century the Baroque fell into great disfavour, but it was revived from around the s, by which time the art of the 18th and 19th century was largely disregarded. The High Renaissance , which Vasari regarded as the greatest period, has always retained its prestige, including works by Leonardo da Vinci , Michelangelo , and Raphael , but the succeeding period of Mannerism has fallen in and out of favour.
In the 19th century the beginnings of academic art history, led by German universities, led to much better understanding and appreciation of medieval art , and a more nuanced understanding of classical art, including the realization that many if not most treasured masterpieces of sculpture were late Roman copies rather than Greek originals.
The European tradition of art was expanded to include Byzantine art and the new discoveries of archaeology , notably Etruscan art , Celtic art and Upper Paleolithic art. Since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of art made by women; vernacular creativity, especially in printed media; and an expansion to include works in the Western tradition produced outside Europe.
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At the same time there has been a much greater appreciation of non-Western traditions, including their place with Western art in wider global or Eurasian traditions. The decorative arts have traditionally had a much lower critical status than fine art , although often highly valued by collectors, and still tend to be given little prominence in undergraduate studies or popular coverage on television and in print.
Women were discriminated against in terms of obtaining the training necessary to be an artist in the mainstream Western traditions. In addition, since the Renaissance the nude , more often than not female, [ citation needed ] has had a special position as subject matter. In the s, feminist art criticism continued this critique of the institutionalized sexism of art history, art museums, and galleries, and questioned which genres of art were deemed museum-worthy.
Whereas men experience presence in our art institutions, women experience primarily absence, except in images that do not necessarily reflect women's own sense of themselves. The preface to the Blackwell anthology of Renaissance Literature from acknowledges the importance of online access to literary texts on the selection of what to include, meaning that the selection can be made on basis of functionality rather than representativity".
One is "unabashedly canonical ", meaning that Sidney, Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and Jonson have been given the space prospective users would expect. It also includes texts that may not be representative of the qualitatively best efforts of Renaissance literature, but of the quantitatively most numerous texts, such as homilies and erotica.
A third principle has been thematic, so that the anthology aims to include texts that shed light on issues of special interest to contemporary scholars. The Blackwell anthology is still firmly organised around authors, however. It is arguable that such an approach is more suitable for the interested reader than for the student. Der Kanon , edited by Marcel Reich-Ranicki , is a large anthology of exemplary works of German literature. See Key texts of French literature. Several of these works are lists themselves; such as early dictionaries, lists of songs, recipes, biographies, or encyclopedic compilations of information such as mathematical, scientific, medical, or plant reference books.
Other items include early translations of literature from other countries, history books, first-hand diaries, and published correspondence. Notable original works can be found by author name. The Danish Culture Canon consists of works of cultural excellence in eight categories: architecture , visual arts , design and crafts , film , literature , music , performing arts , and children's culture. An initiative of Brian Mikkelsen in , it was developed by a series of committees under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Culture in — as "a collection and presentation of the greatest, most important works of Denmark's cultural heritage.
The list was compiled through votes from members of the Svenska Akademien , Swedish Crime Writers' Academy , librarians, authors, and others.
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Approximately 30 of the books were Swedish. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Courageous, award-winning practitioners discuss how they work on the sharp edge of politically engaged theater in Russia, Tunisia, and Belarus while navigating constant threats of censorship and political repression. Transitions can be powerful or they can be disconcerting, delirious or even dangerous. Whether they are across national borders, across cultures, or across sexual identities, reconciling the old and the new can be accompanied by pain or by joy, or lead to a new awareness and identity.
In her debut novel Freshwater Akwaeke Emezi explores how the But how effective have these efforts been? With the upcoming election, how can we ensure the voices of American citizens are being heard at the polls?
Mother Jones reporter Ari Berman and historian Carol Anderson map the evidence of systematic and growing efforts to suppress voters rights and provide insight on activist solutions and responses. Moderated by Oliver Laughland. How can writers help bring about a new politics more responsive to the growing movements for living wages, universal healthcare, and racial justice? From a single sticky note at a subway stop to the largest one-day protest in U. Homes, explore opportunities for creativity in activism, and detail their work We are living through one of the most divisive periods in American history, with hate-filled rhetoric fueling disagreements on a wide range of issues—from LGBTQ rights to immigration policy and more.
How do we begin to repair the world around us and move toward collective, positive change? CNN commentator Sally Kohn, who investigates the roots In this series, PEN America interviews the leaders of different PEN centers from the global network to offer a window into the literary accomplishments and free expression challenges of their respective countries. This month, Polina Koval This panel took place at the Brooklyn Book Festival.
In the first part of the show, Zlatko Dizdarevic, one of the editors of Oslobodenje newspaper, the only newspaper which continued to publish during the Bosnian war in Sarajevo, talks about the war in Sarajevo with Terry Gross. The second part is the news of PEN's event, which had taken place the night before when a group of writers gathered for At the time of this interview, it had been more than six years since the Ayatollah Khomeini issued a death sentence against writer Salman Rushdie.
Rushdie lived in hiding but continued to write and to make a few semi-public appearances. His book, Haroun and the Sea of Stories, published in , was a fairy tale written for his son. His bo In a radio series called New Southerners, writer Kaye Gibbons answers questions about her award-winning book Ellen Foster and follow-up books, how new writers from the South talk about race, building characters that ring true to regional areas, and how it feels to be compared to historic Southern writers.
Please contact Princeton University's R She answers questions about meeting and hiding him at the beginning of his exile and talks of how she remains hopeful This is a program on Czeslaw Milosz and his poetry.
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Read the full text of "from in the weeds my buzzer shot" at pen. McCarran-Walter Act. Moore, as they break down the ways their work informs, challenges, and shapes our understanding of the current political situation.
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I Write Banned Books Monday September PM — PM In celebration and defiance during Banned Books Week , PEN America in partnership with Strand Books invites authors--whose books have been banned or challenged because of their cover art and content--to discuss their experiences, and how to get skeptical readers to live up to the saying 'don't judge a book by its cover. Boundaries and Borders Monday October 2: PM — PM We cross borders in our daily lives: on the subway between boroughs, in conversation, and in writing.
The borders we cross define who we are. The boundaries writers and translators traverse in their work gives us a rich and varied literary landscape, and it is vital that they continue to reflect and contribute to the diversity of our world. The topic of borders and boundaries has been at the forefront of people's minds, and it is important that these borders remain open, so that ideas, dreams, stories, and people can cross them easily, adding to the richness on either side.
Join PEN America in partnership with Strand Book Store for an intimate poetry reading with two award-winning authors whose work navigates themes of mental health, and the often obscured line between self-hate and self-love Read The Book List.